Glossary of Terms

common factor An integer that will divide exactly (meaning there is no remainder) into two or more integers. Commonly used in simplifying fractions.
composite number Any number that has more than itself and one as factors, i.e., is not a prime number.
denominator Any number b, except for zero, in a fraction written in the form a/b.
equivalent fractions Fractions which have the same value.
factor tree A visual representation used to show the prime factors of a number.
fraction Representation of the quotient of two numbers, a and b, written in the form a/b where b ¹ 0 (b is not equal to zero).
fraction bar The line in a fraction that separates the numerator and denominator.
greatest common factor (GCF) The largest integer factor that two or more numbers have in common. The GCF is most often used to simplify fractions.
integer Any whole number or zero.
least common denominator (LCD) The least common multiple of the denominators of a group of fractions.
multiple The result of multiplying a number by a whole number. For example, 40 is a multiple of 5, given 5 x 8 = 40.
multiplier An integer multiplied with both the numerator and denominator of a fraction.
numerator Any integer a, in a fraction written in the form a/b.
percent Symbol is "%", which means, "per one hundred."
prime factor Prime numbers that are factors of an integer.
prime factorization An expansion of a product of primes, used to find common factors and to help simplify fractions.
prime number A number that has only two factors, 1 and itself.
proportion An equation that states equality between two ratios.
ratio The comparison of two numbers by division.
reciprocal The multiplicative inverse of a given quatity. It is formed by dividing 1 by the given quantity. To find the reciprocal of a fraction, simply "flip it over."
rounding down Done when restricting a decimal to a limited number of places. When rounding down, we leave the decimal in the place where we are rounding to as it is given, and discard all digits to its right. This is done when the next place value is four or less.
rounding up Done when restricting a decimal to a limited number of places. When rounding up, we increase the decimal in the place where we are rounding to by a value of 1, and drop off the digits to the right. This is done when the next place value is greater than or equal to five.
simplified fraction A fraction which has had all common factors of the numerator and denominator canceled.
inequality symbols:  
    >
greater than or equal to
    <
less than or equal to
    >
greater than
    <
less than


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